GEOLOGY (IN DETAIL)
Our Museum has several different types of rock formations on display that gives the visitor an insight in the geological history of the island. An example of this is a piece of Point Blanc rock formation. This layered rock is a result of crystallization of lime stone and dates back to about 15 million years.
The Caribbean area was geological a very unstable region, due to major continental shelf (tectonic plates) movements. This caused frequent earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes. When a submerged volcano erupts the magma is quickly cooled by the ocean water and then solidifies. The solidified magma is pushed upwards by shifting of tectonic plates and then forms an island. Of course this process takes thousands of years.
About one million years ago St. Maarten, Anguilla and St. Barths were one island. This was visible because the sea level was about 35 meters lower than it is today.
In the Museum a 3D map of what was then know as greater St. Maarten can be viewed.
A storm may develop in to a hurricane, when air is heated and contacts warm waters.
As the water evaporates, moist air arises and spirals inwards toward the core the closer the air gets to the centre, the faster it moves. When this process repeats its self the storm turns into a Hurricane.
The Atlantic hurricane season is from June 1st to November 30th
The Monster Hurricane
Hurricane Luis hit our island on September the 5th and 6th of 1995.
Visitors can request to watch a video about Hurricane Luis in the Museum.
Other Hurricanes through out the past (This is not a comple decades:
David & Frederic (1979)
Marlyn (1995, weeks after Luis)
Georges & Jose (1998)
FLORA AND FAUNA (IN DETAIL)
FLORA AND FAUNA
St. Maarten has a wide variety of different habitats which determine the flora and fauna of the island. The main ones included here can be divided into marine and inland areas. The marine areas are the salt ponds and the lagoons, mangrove swamps, coral reefs, sea grass beds and sandy shores.
The salt ponds were originally linked to the sea which is why mangroves are around them. They are now hostile environments for flora and fauna due to factors such as pollution, destruction of the mangroves, fluctuation in salinity levels, depth and temperature. Even so some flora and fauna survive. Examples are Red mangrove and Seaside Lavender, fish such as White Mullet and a variety of birds such as the |Brown Pelican and Snowy Egrets.
The mangrove ecologically very important, are woody plants that grow in loose and muddy soil in tropical tidal waters. The highly salt tolerant Red Mangrove roots help to prevent beach erosion by trapping and stabilizing sediments. In addition they act as a nursery for young fish. Mangroves are found at the south shore of Simpson Bay lagoon and around some salt ponds. Replanting has been carried out at Little Bay pond.
Sea grass beds grow at the bottom of sandy bays and between coral reefs. The grass grows and reproduces by means of rhizomes which lie just below the sand. The grass blades grow up and fibrous roots grow down making a mat that holds it in place. It requires sunlight and cannot tolerate cloudy water for long periods. It controls erosion therefore the water stays clear. This helps coral polyps which have a symbiotic relationship with algae. Algae need light and if the sea grass is destroyed they die and then the polyps die and there ceases to be a reef community. In 1995 hurricanes damaged both coral reefs and grass beds which are now recovering.
There are numerous sandy beaches that have been built up by wave action. Plants such as Sea Grapes and Beach Morning Glory are found here with birds such as Sandpiper and Frigate bird.
Inland close to the coast are dry areas such as thorny scrub, examples being Cacti, Acacia and Cotton. The hill sides provide a wide variety of habitats ranging from the original vegetation such as Gum Trees, Bromeliads and Orchids in the highest areas to low grade secondary scrub land on the lower slopes. Birds and animals vary from hummingbirds and sand kestrel to lizard and iguanas.
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR
You can discover the island’s environment without attending one of the organized hiking activities. If you wish to explore the island environment feel free to do so. The island has no dangerous animals or snakes of any kind, but it is wise to be aware that some plants and insects can cause you serious harm. It is generally best to avoid deliberate touching of plants. We recommended that when hiking into the hills, for you to wear long pants and sleeves for skin protection during hikes and walks. Do not hike alone, carry a cellular phone and inform people were you plan to go.
A tree that bears apples, which can cause a painful rash when they or you are wet.
Standing under it when it rains is hazardous. The tree has milk which can cause burns or blisters. Do not eat the apple, swallowing a little bit will cause blisters and swelling in the mouth and throat. Cutting the tree will cause the sap to squirt. If you get in contact with tree, its apples or the milk, seek medical attention.
The Red Bush is a low bush with small green thorny leaves that turn red it can cause scratches and irritations.
The Oleander is an evergreen perennial bush originating from the Mediterranean.
It can reach up to 5 meters of height. It has dark green spear shaped leaves and beautiful white, red or pink blossoms, which bloom the entire year. The characteristic poisoning symptoms are as follows: nausea, vomiting, accelerated heartbeat, and cardiac arrest. Poisoning and reactions to Oleander plants are evident quickly and require immediate medical care.
The Jack Spaniard is a variant of the wasp. They build their nest on small branches and mind their own business. However provoked, they will sting repeatedly because their stinger is not bared like that of a bee. This wasp can have a nasty sting, which can cause a swelling that can last up to 48 hours. Be extra careful if you are sensitive or allergic to wasps. If the pain continues after 48 hours don’t hesitate to call a physician
A Centipede has a nasty bite. Their poison is injected through two curved claws behind the head. This can be quite painful. Susceptible persons can develop a reaction to the bite like swelling. Anti itch cream can help or antihistamine. The effect of the bite depends on the size of the creature and if you are an adult or child.
Seek medical attention immediately if your baby is bitten.
Sea Urchins are small round little animals that are found in all oceans. Their shell or bodies are covered in large spikes, which can be 3 to 10 cm long (1.2 to 3.9 in). They live mostly on rocky cliffs near the coast and seafloor. They move very slow and feed on algae.
If you happen to get stung:
1. Remove the spines that you received from the urchin if possible
3. Soak it in hot water as hot as you can tolerate for about twenty to forty minutes
4. When you go to bed, wrap the area that was stung with a towel, soaked in vinegar.
Fire Corals get their name from the painful stings they inflict on divers. Approximately 50 different species of fire coral have been described. Fire corals form extensive outcrops on projecting parts of the reef where the tidal currents are strong. They are also abundant on upper reef slopes and in lagoons and occur down to depths of 40 meters. Stay away from all corals but if burned, use burn ointment.